Suicide Risk Grew After Missouri Medicaid Kids Shifted To Managed Care, Hospitals Say

April 1, 2019
By Phil Galewitz
Kaiser Health News

After more than 2,000 Missouri children diagnosed with mental illness were shifted from traditional Medicaid into three for-profit managed-care companies, the state’s hospitals noticed an alarming trend: a doubling in the percentage who had thoughts of suicide or attempted suicide.

Additionally, the average length of stay for these children in psychiatric hospitals dropped from 10 days to seven following the Medicaid change in May 2017, according to a study released this month by the Missouri Hospital Association.

The hospital association called on state Medicaid officials to investigate the study’s findings about children covered by the state-federal program for low-income families. The group acknowledged that factors other than the move to managed care could have played a role behind the increase, including social media, cyberbullying and lack of access to specialized mental health care.

While children with suicidal thoughts are at higher risk of suicide, the hospital association said it had no evidence that more children were taking their own lives after the move to managed care.

The growing number of suicides among children and youths has prompted national concern. The suicide rate in Missouri has doubled from 2.8 per 100,000 children in 2003 to 6.4 per 100,000 children in 2017, according to the hospital association. In that same time period, 735 Missouri children died by suicide.

The Missouri Health Plan Association, which represents the three Medicaid managed-care plans in the state, slammed the report. “This study is not peer-reviewed, it is based on a very small sample size and was clearly commissioned to attempt to further a predetermined hypothesis,” the group said in a statement.

Despite finding the study “fundamentally flawed,” the health plan association added that it was taking the findings “very seriously.”

Joan Alker, director of the Georgetown University Center for Children and Families, called the Missouri report “extremely troubling.” She said the new data set doesn’t prove managed care has caused any problem but does raise questions over whether children are getting adequate treatment.

“Managed care is an effort to save money and that is done by getting rid of unnecessary care or coordinating care better, but a lot of managed-care organizations cut corners,” she said.

Missouri’s top Medicaid official said he was aware that youth suicides had increased in the state since 2003, but he reacted cautiously to the report’s implied connection to the growing use of managed care since 2017. Missouri Medicaid shifted to managed care in the more populous areas of the state around St. Louis and Kansas City nearly a decade ago.

“We welcome collaborative conversations on how to address these problems, but cannot let those conversations devolve into finger pointing,” Missouri Medicaid Director Todd Richardson said in a statement. More research is needed into other factors, he said, such as access to follow-up care, medication compliance and differences in outcomes at facilities around the state.

Angela Kimball, national director of advocacy and public policy at the National Alliance on Mental Illness, said Medicaid managed care can be helpful in coordinating treatments and providing special services such as team-based care. But it can also “mean denying access to care or not approving services that are needed.”

If you know a child who has talked about contemplating suicide, get help by calling the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255, or use the online Lifeline Crisis Chat, both available 24 hours a day, seven days a week.